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Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. For those who have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also known as “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is important that it have exactly the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus could cause a female to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to have a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. infant loss About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also known as chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples fail to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it may be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually originates from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the cause of the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss can help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their likelihood of having an effective healthy pregnancy.