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Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. In case you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you could be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
Which kind of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved in a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is essential that it have exactly the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or higher for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one atlanta divorce attorneys four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to possess a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have appeared to be just an unusual period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. Because of this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but will not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more likely to receive results and the results are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood concurrently the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

stillbirth If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the sort of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Most of the time, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to research the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason behind a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing can be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their chances of having an effective healthy pregnancy.